Peer Reviewed Study

Real-world implementation of video-observed therapy in an urban TB program in the United States

August 1, 2021
National Library of Medicine
Perry A, Chitnis A, Chin A, Hoffmann C, Chang L, Robinson M, Maltas G, Munk E, Shah M.
Managing Medication Adherence to Improve Outcomes and Quality Metrics


Background: Video directly observed therapy (vDOT) was introduced to increase flexibility and meet patient-specific needs for TB treatment. This study aimed to assess the reach and effectiveness of vDOT for TB treatment under routine conditions in Alameda County, CA, USA, a busy, urban setting, from 2018 to 2020.

Methods: We prospectively evaluated routinely collected data to estimate 1) reach (proportion of patients initiated on vDOT vs. in-person DOT); and 2) effectiveness (proportion of prescribed doses with verified administration by vDOT vs. in-person DOT).

Results: Among 163 TB patients, 94 (58%) utilized vDOT during treatment, of whom 54 (57%) received exclusively vDOT. Individuals receiving vDOT were on average younger than those receiving in-person therapy (46 vs. 61 years; P< 0.001). The median time to vDOT initiation was 2.2 weeks (IQR 1.1-10.0); patients were monitored for a median of 27.0 weeks (IQR 24.6-31.9). vDOT led to higher proportions of verified prescribed doses than in-person DOT (68% vs. 54%; P< 0.001). Unobserved self-administration occurred for all patients on weekends based on clinic instructions, but a larger proportion of doses were self-administered during periods of in-person DOT than of vDOT (45% vs. 24%; P< 0.001).

Conclusion: A TB program successfully maintained vDOT, reaching the majority of patients and achieving greater medication verification than in-person DOT.

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Medication Adherence

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